Ahead of an independent review, the UK’s anti-terrorism strategy faced criticism from Muslims groups, rights organisations and UN officialsPrevent is a controversial programme within the UK government’s counter-terrorism strategy that critics say is disproportionately targeted at Muslim communities and undermines basic rights and freedoms.
Launched in 2005 by Tony Blair’s Labour government, the strategy seeks to “safeguard and support those vulnerable to radicalisation, to stop them from becoming terrorists or supporting terrorism”.
However, soon after its inception, the programme’s focus on Muslims prompted complaints of discrimination and concerns that it was crafted to collect intelligence against Muslim community members.
As a result, in 2011, under David Cameron’s coalition government, Prevent’s remit was expanded to cover all forms of extremism.
This was loosely defined in government documents relating to the strategy as “vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs”.
In 2015, the government substantially extended the reach of Prevent into schools, hospitals and other public sector settings by introducing the Prevent Duty as part of the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act.
The duty requires public sector workers, including doctors, teachers and even nursery staff, to report signs of potential radicalisation and “prevent people being drawn into terrorism”.
Guidance for public sector workers on beliefs and behaviours which might require referral included questioning western foreign policy, feeling anxious or reserved in class, or feeling a desire for political or moral change.
Despite Prevent’s expanded remit to focus on all types of extremism, Muslims continue to make up a disproportionate number of referrals to the programme.
Figures released in 2017 showed that over 65 percent of referrals in England and Wales were Muslim, including nearly 2,000 Muslim children, despite Muslims making up less than five percent of the total population at the time.
A key element of Prevent which has proven to be contentious is Channel, a programme which offers mentoring and support to people assessed to be at risk of radicalisation.
Leaked Prevent guidance also showed UK Counter Terrorism Police urging Prevent practitioners to refer people associated with various anti-racist groups, left-wing groups, pro-Palestine groups and anti-arms campaigners in Britain.
“Prevent is having the opposite of its intended effect: by dividing, stigmatising and alienating segments of the population, Prevent could end up promoting extremism, rather than countering it,” Maina Kiai, the UN special rapporteur on freedom of peaceful assembly, said in a 2017 report.
In January 2019, the government announced it would commission an independent review of Prevent.
The review was supposed to be completed by August 2020, but after being forced to drop its first appointed reviewer, Lord Carlile, over his past advocacy for the strategy, it conceded that the review would be delayed.
In January 2021, William Shawcross, who chaired the Charity Commission between 2012 and 2018, was named as reviewer.
The decision was instantly met with criticism by rights groups and large segments of the Muslim community over previous remarks he made about Islam.
In 2012, as a director of the neoconservative thinktank the Henry Jackson Society, Shawcross said: “Europe and Islam is one of the greatest, most terrifying problems of our future. I think all European countries have vastly, very quickly growing Islamic populations.”
Meanwhile in his book, Justice and the Enemy, he defended American uses of interrogation techniques, including waterboarding, which is widely regarded as torture, as well as the detention of suspected al-Qaeda fighters at Guantanamo Bay.
Additionally, under Shawcross’ tenure, the Charity Commission for England and Wales was accused of institutional bias against Muslims by the Claystone thinktank.
More than 450 Islamic organisations, including 350 mosques and imams, boycotted the government’s review of the anti-radicalisation programme as a result.
Following the mounting criticism against his appointment, Shawcross said that some of his views had been “misrepresented or misinterpreted.”
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